Intel - Terrorism
Lehi "Stern Gang"

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  • Avraham Stern
  • Yitzhak Shamir (future Prime Minister of Israel)
  • Israel Eldad (Sheib)
  • Natan Yellin-Mor (Friedman)
  • Eliahu Bet-Zouri
  • Eliahu Hakim
  • Amos Keinan

Hitler led the 1923 revolt


Adolf Hitler Leads the Beer Hall Revolt
November 8-9, 1923

1925 Edition of Mein Kampf

Adolf Hitler Publishes Mein Kampf (1925)
  • His infamous book is in part inspired by the writings of Madison Grant, specifically "The Passing of the Great Race"
  • The book was dedicated to Dietrich Eckart

Von Schleicher killed

Night of the Long Knives
June 30 - July 2, 1934

Night of Broken Glass (November 9-10, 1938)


Irgun Calls Off Campaign Against British, Leads to Split of Stern Gang
  • ...1939. Later that year, when the Irgun called off its campaign against the British, a split took place. The more militant wing, led by Avraham Stern, seceded from the Irgun to form Lohamei Herut Yisrael (Fighters for the Freedom of Israel), better known as Lehi, after its Hebrew acronym, or the Stern Gang (The Iron Wall, p. 24)

Avraham Stern

Bank Robbery 1940


Siding with Nazis, 1940
  • In 1940, Lehi proposed intervening in World War II on the side of Nazi Germany. It offered assistance in "evacuating" the Jews of Europe, in return for Germany's help in expelling Britain from Mandate Palestine.
  • The Stern Gang was so hostile to the British that it sought contact with the Axis powers in order to drive the British out of Palestine. (The Iron Wall, p. 24)


Stern Gang Meets with Nazi von Papen, Propose an Alliance
January 1941
  • But the Arabs were not alone in seeking a special relationship with Berlin.
  • In January 1941 Otto von Hentig, while in Turkey with German ambassador Franz von Papen, met with a very strange delegation indeed.
  • It consisted of members of an alliance of the notorious Zionist Self-Defense League, Stern.
  • They proposed an alliance with the Third Reich with the following terms: Germany would allow the German Jews to emigrate to Palestine; the Zionists, in exchange, would form an alliance with the Third Reich in order to fight against Great Britain.
  • The answer to this proposition, dutifully communicated to Berlin, has never been made known publicly.


Stern Gang Proposes Alliance with Mussolini
  • Stern, who had cultivated an affinity for fascism while studying in Italy and pitched a similar bargain to Mussolini, offered a pact with the devil: “the establishment of the historic Jewish state on a national and totalitarian basis, bound by a treaty with the German Reich.”
  • Berlin never took up the offer. Stern himself would have only a year to live.

Germany Invades Russia, June 22, 1941


Bank Robbery 1942

Avraham Stern Killed in Gunfight


Future Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir Rises to Lead Stern Gang, After Death of Avraham Stern
  • ...Begin commanded Irgun and Shamir led the more extreme Stern Gang. (The Iron Wall, p. 382)


Yitzhak Shamir's World Outlook is Essentially Hobbesian
  • Shamir...Losing his family in the Nazi Holocaust was another formative experience, which could only reinforce his stark, Hobbesian view of the world. (The Iron Wall, p. 463)


Attempted Assassination of British Secret Police Head
  • Attempted assassination of the head of the British secret police in Lod


Assassinations of British soldiers and police officers and Jewish "collaborators"
  • Lehi conducted small-scale operations such as assassinations of British soldiers and police officers and Jewish "collaborators".

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Lord Moyne Assassinated
by Stern Gang


Assassination of Lord Moyne "Baron Walter Guinness" November 6, 1944
  • Assassination of Lord Moyne "Baron Walter Guinness" 1944
  • In the early afternoon of 6 November 1944, Eliyahu Bet-Zuri and Eliyahu Hakim of Lehi waited for Moyne near his home in Cairo.
  • Moyne arrived in his car with his driver and his secretary.
  • When the driver got out to open the door for Moyne, Hakim shot Moyne three times and Bet-Zuri killed the driver.
  • The two assassins fled on their bicycles, pursued by an Egyptian policeman who happened to be nearby.
  • Hakim tried to shoot the policeman but he fired back and Hakim fell, wounded.
  • The two were surrounded by an angry mob until they were extracted by the police. Moyne was rushed to hospital but died of his wounds that evening.
  • The Israeli government issued a commemorative stamp collection featuring the assassins of Lord Moyne


Bombing of Car Park in Tel Aviv
April 25, 1945
  • On the 25th of April 1945 the Stern Gang carried out their most cold blooded attacks to date.
  • A large car park in Tel Aviv was being used by the 6th Airborne Division as a transport deport.
  • The car park was surrounded only by barbed wire and guarded by a section of 8 men and from the 5th Parachute brigade who were billeted in tents near to entrance of the car park.
  • At 20:30 hours, three trucks pulled up un-observed outside a house opposite the car park entrance.
  • From these trucks 25 armed members of the Stern gang got out.
  • The Jewish terrorists entered the house and held to occupants at gun point as they set up firing positions towards the car park entrance.
  • About 15 minutes later a bomb was thrown at the main gate of the car park and the the terrorists opened fire on the British Paratroops.
  • Those not killed in this initial hail of fire took cover in the tents.
  • About 20 terrorists then left the house and entered the car park.
  • They entered the first tent and found two British soldiers and a NCO who had been off duty and were now trying to take cover from the fire from the house. All three were shot at close range with machine guns.
  • The NCO was somehow not hit and pretended to be dead.
  • The terrorists then moved on to the next tent were they murdered another two unarmed Paratroopers.
  • In all 7 British soldiers were killed, most were unarmed.
  • This attack had a serious effect on the British Army, which had previously been very sympathetic to the Jewish cause.
  • The 6th Airborne Division had seen a lot of fighting in northwest Europe towards the end of the war and had first hand experience of liberating the Nazi concentration camps in.
  • As a result the airborne soldiers had arrived in Palestine prepared to help and support the Jewish community.



Haganah/Palmach/Stern Gang
"Night of the Bridges"
June 16-17, 1946
  • Operation Markolet (known as Night of the Bridges) was a Haganah venture on the night of the 16th to the 17th of June 1946 in the British Mandate of Palestine. Its aim was to destroy eleven bridges linking Palestine to the neighboring countries Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and Egypt, in order to immobilize its transportation.



British Officers Club Hostage Taking of Six British Military
June 18, 1946
  • On the 18th of June 1946 the kidnappers struck again.
  • This time they held up the British Officers Club in Tel Aviv and took five British officers and one one RAF service man and dragged them to get away cars out side.
  • One of the officers had to be clubbed to subdue him.
  • The object of this raid was to obtain hostages to hold against the two Jews who had been captured in a arms raid at Sarafand in March.
  • Four days later two of the kidnapped officer were released.
  • They said that their captors had not been violent towards them, but they had been kept shackled in chains on their hands and feet.
  • The remaining three officers were held captive for another 12 days.
  • They were released after the two condemned Jews had their sentences commuted.
  • Before releasing them the Jews first chloroformed the three officers.
  • The three officers were then unceremoniously dumped still unconscious, on a street corner in Tel Aviv, where passers by took no notice of their predicament.

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Irgun and Lehi (Stern Gang) Bomb King David Hotel, July 22, 1946
  • The Irgun bombing of the King David Hotel's south wing.
  • Although the Haganah had sanctioned the operation and the Irgun phoned in two warnings to the British, the hotel was not evacuated and 91 people were killed in the explosion.
  • Shocked by the death toll and worried about the negative image this would generate, the Haganah quickly distanced itself from both the Irgun and the Lehi.
  • The timing was also determined by the original intention that the attack should coincide with another, carried out by the Lehi, on government offices at the David Brothers Building.
  • That one, codenamed "Operation Your Slave and Redeemer", was cancelled at the last moment, though.
  • The Jewish response to these events came less than three weeks later, when a bomb blew up the British headquarters in Jerusalem's King David Hotel. The attack, planned by the Haganah but carried out by the Revisionist Irgun militia, commanded by Menachem Begin, who claimed to have warned the British repeatedly, killed ninety-one people, including seventeen Jews. (Power, Faith, and Fantasy, pp. 489-490)


British Launch Counterterrorism Operation Shark
July 24, 1946
  • The British response to the King David bombing was another 48 hour cordon and search, code named Operation Shark. This operation was mounted by the men and 6th Airborne division.
  • The aim of Operation shark was to remove the few remaining hard core terrorists left on the scene.
  • British and American press agencies were quick to take the opportunity to sell more newspapers but the result was to place the British Army in a bad light, as in Aden years later, propaganda pictures of British soldiers seemingly being brutal to women and children were splashed in the world newspapers.


Bombing of British police station in Haifa, January 12, 1947
  • January 12, 1947, members drove a truckload of explosives into a British police station in Haifa, Palestine, killing four and injuring 140.


Stern Gang Pamphlet on "Innocent Jewish Blood"
May 7, 1947
  • A Stern Gang pamphlet found in Hadar Hacarrnel, Haifa, on May 7, 1947, illustrates their fanaticism and intellectual confusion: (1)
  • Innocent blood will not be shed, but the blood of rioters, pogrom-heroes and murderers will be shed, for it is defiled. And so is the blood of each Briton, ruling beyond the frontiers of his country. The British blood-sucker, to be a soldier, a constable, a clerk, so long as he obeys orders to exploit and murder, he is indicted. He is here to guard the imperialist rule and prevent the rescue of the Jews. For this his blood will be shed.
  • It is unavoidable that in this war innocent blood will be shed as well, but there has never been a war or revolution 'with all comforts," without privations, without destruction, without bloodshed. Let those among us who are afraid of bloodshed and destruction say openly that they surrender to a New Munich, to each White Paper, which leads to a ghetto and ultimately to new gas-chambers a la Auschwitz. They sit in their homes waiting for the day of the great slaughter which Bevin and his partner Kaukji are preparing for us, waiting for Jewish youth to be mobilized by the Anglo-Saxons in their war against the Soviet Union. They cry over defiled British blood, but remain silent over the blood of innocent refugees. The blood of the strong one must be protected, the blood of the weak one may be shed. Why don't they try to force the British to stop bloodshed, why do they force us?
  • Why are you shouting from your walls (Hahoma Wall) about innocent Jewish blood being shed by the "terrorists," while not admitting the murder of 230 innocent refugees of the "Patria"? How dare you accuse us of murder while you killed tenfold as many Jews on a single occasion? Reply!
  • Jewish blood is sacred and pure. The blood of Britons suppressing foreign countries is defiled. Therefore it will be shed to prevent innocent blood from being shed.
UN Resolution 181: Vote for Israel Creation
November 29, 1947
  • Supposed to be two states declared on that day, a Palestinian state and a Jewish state
  • Internal faction fights within the Arab world contributed to only a single state being declared
  • Additionally, disputes within the Orthodox Jewish community pointed out that according to Jewish scripture, you cannot have a state of Israel until the Messiah arrives, and they did not accept David ben-Gurion as the Messiah


Irgun and Stern Gang Denounced UN Resolution 181 on Israel
November 30, 1947
  • News of the UN vote was greeted by Jews everywhere with jubilation and rejoicing. But the followers of Ze'ev Jabotinsky in the Irgun and Stern Gang did not join in the general celebrations. A day after the UN vote, Menachem Begin, the commander of Irgun, proclaimed the credo of the underground fighters: "The partition of Palestine is illegal. It will never be recognized....Jerusalem was and will for ever be our capital. Eretz Israel will be restored to the people of Israel. All of it. And for ever." (The Iron Wall, p. 25)

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Har Nof in Jerusalem is partially built on
the location of the site of Deir Yassin


Deir Yassin massacre 1948
  • Begin was at home in Tel Aviv, not on the scene, and his biographer Eric Silver concludes he probably did not plan the massacre beforehand or realize fully the dimensions of the one that had taken place when he issued his euphoric message to his troops... (Arab and Jew, p. 37)
  • The Irgun-Leki Deir Yassin massacre in April had already taken place, one major factor in causing the flight of much of the Arab population...by the terrorist Menachem Begin, who took pride in the operations in which some 250 defenseless people were slaughtered, including more than 100 women and children, with 4 killed among the attacking forces. Recently discovered personal testimonies of the leaders of the operation reveal that the majority favored eliminating whoever stood in their way, including women and children, and proceeded to do so, murdering captured and wounded. (The Fateful Triangle, pp. 95-96)
  • Begin praised his killers for their humanity, for "acting in a way that no other fighting force had ever done," a refrain that has been echoed after every way, including the 1982 war...(The Fateful Triangle, pp. 95-96)
  • The Irgun command sent an internal message of congratulations on the "wonderful operation of conquest," saying: "As in Deir Yassin, so everywhere...Oh Lord, Oh Lord, you have chosen us for conquest."...The massacre was also condemned officially by the Palestinian Yishuv (the pre-state Jewish settlement). (The Fateful Triangle, pp. 95-96)
  • Begin was at home in Tel Aviv, not on the scene, and his biographer Eric Silver concludes he probably did not plan the massacre beforehand or realize fully the dimensions of the one that had taken place when he issued his euphoric message to his troops... (Arab and Jew, p. 37)

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Swedish Diplomat Folke Bernadotte negotiated release of 31,000 prisoners from German concentration camps


Assassination of Count Folke Bernadotte September 17, 1948
  • Assassination of Count Folke Bernadotte 1948
  • A three-man team ambushed Bernadotte's motorcade in Jerusalem's Katamon neighborhood. Two of them, Yitzhak Ben Moshe and Avraham Steinberg, shot at the tires of the UN vehicles. The third, Yehoshua Cohen, opened the door of Bernadotte's car and shot him at close range. The bullets also hit a French officer who was sitting beside him, Colonel André Serot. Both were killed. Meshullam Makover, the fourth accomplice, was the driver of the getaway car.
  • On 17 September, a day after Bernadotte submitted his second report to the UN, he was assassinated in Jerusalem by members of the ultranationalist Stern Gang, who regarded the Swedish nobleman as an agent of the British government. The triumvirate that ordered the assassination of the UN mediator included Yitzhak Shamir, the future prime minister of Israel....Bernadotte's assassins were never brought to justice. (The Iron Wall, p. 37)


Haganah, Irgun, and Stern Gang Disband, Become Israeli Defense Forces
1948 (?)
  • The Haganah was renamed the Israel Defense Force (IDF), and the Irgun and the Stern Gang were later disbanded and merged with the IDF. (The Iron Wall, p. 34)

Israeli Government Issues Postage Stamp Commemorating Avraham Stern Postage Stamp