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Revolt was 132 - 136

Simon Bar Kochba
  • Simon bar Kokhba, the commander of the revolt, was acclaimed as a Messiah, a heroic figure who could restore Israel. The revolt established a Jewish state over parts of Judea for over two years, but a Roman army of 2 legions with auxiliaries finally crushed it. The Romans then barred Jews from Jerusalem, except to attend Tisha B'Av.
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Burial tomb of Simeon ben Yohai
100 - 168

Simeon ben Yohai
  • He authored the Zohar, the most fundamental kabbalistic work.
  • The Zohar (Splendor or Radiance) is widely considered the most important work of Kabbalah, or Jewish mysticism. It is a mystical commentary on the Torah (the five books of Moses), written in medieval Aramaic.
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Judah Halevi
  • To Professor Naeh, Judah Halevi's twelfth-century writings reinforce the Jewish ethnocentrism found in the Old Testament. "It's very dangerous," said Naeh of the Halevi thesis on the inferiority of Ishmael. "I'm not sure that in his time this theory had a very big influence with Jews, but it has in the last centuries, especially in Eastern Europe, in Russia, in Poland, etc. The Gush Emunim people see Halevi as their big prophet. They study each word, and they live with his ideas, the chosen people." (Arab and Jew, p. 152)

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Moses de Leon of Granada
1250-1305

Moses de Leon of Granada
  • Known as the author of the Zohar, though it is a matter of controversy if the Zohar is his own work, or that he committed traditions going back to Rabbi Shimon bar Yohai in writing.
  • Toward the end of the thirteenth century Moses de Leon wrote or compiled a kabbalistic midrash to the Pentateuch full of strange mystic allegories, and ascribed it to Simeon bar Yohai, the great saint of the Tannaim.
  • The work, written in peculiar Aramaic, is entitled Midrash de Rabban Shimon ben Yohai better known as the Zohar.

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John Dee
1527-1609

John Dee
  • A consultant to Queen Elizabeth I
  • In 1564, Dee wrote the Hermetic work Monas Hieroglyphica ("The Hieroglyphic Monad"), an exhaustive Cabalistic interpretation of a glyph of his own design, meant to express the mystical unity of all creation.
  • He travelled to Hungary to present a copy personally to Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor.

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Isaac Luria
1534-1572

Isaac Luria
  • About the age of twenty-two years old, he became engrossed in the study of the Zohar, a major work of the Kabbalah that had recently been printed for the first time, and adopted the life of a recluse.
  • He retreated to the banks of the Nile, and for seven years secluded himself in an isolated cottage, giving himself up entirely to meditation.
  • He visited his family only on the Shabbat, speaking very seldom, and always in Hebrew.
  • Hassidism attributes to him that he had frequent interviews with the prophet Elijah through this ascetic life, by whom he was initiated into sublime doctrines.
  • According to Luria, man bears on his forehead a mark by which one may learn the nature of his soul: to which degree and class it belongs; the relation existing between it and the superior world; the wanderings it has already accomplished; the means by which it can contribute to the establishment of the new moral system of the world; how it can be freed from demoniacal influences; and to which soul it should be united in order to become purified.
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  • This union can be effected by formulas of conjuration. The teachings of Rabbi Luria have been widely accepted in Orthodox Judaism, although not all groups follow the customs he initiated.
  • Those communities which tend to avoid the influence of the Ari mainly consist of German, Litvish, and Modern Orthodox groups, Spanish and Portuguese Jews, as well as a noticeable segment of Baladi Yemenite Jews (see Dor Daim), and others who follow a form of Torah Judaism more strictly in line with classical authorities like Maimonides and the Geonim.

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Sir Francis Bacon
1561-1626

Sir Francis Bacon
  • He served both as Attorney General and Lord Chancellor of England.
  • Although his political career ended in disgrace, he remained extremely influential through his works.
  • The accession of James I brought Bacon into greater favour. He was knighted in 1603.
  • Though the well-connected antiquary John Aubrey (1626-1697) noted among his private memoranda concerning Bacon, "He was a Pederast. His Ganimeds and Favourites tooke Bribes",  biographers continue to debate about Bacon's sexual inclinations and the precise nature of his personal relationships.
  • At the age of forty five, Bacon married Alice Barnham (1592–1650), the fourteen year old daughter of a well-connected London alderman and M.P. Bacon wrote three sonnets proclaiming his love for Alice.

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Robert Fludd
1574-1637

Robert Fludd
  • Between 1598 and 1604, Fludd studied medicine, chemistry and the occult on the European mainland, but he is best known for his research in occult philosophy.
  • He had a celebrated exchange of views with Johannes Kepler concerning the scientific and hermetic approaches to knowledge.

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Elias Ashmole
1617-1692

Elias Ashmole
  • Ashmole supported the royalist side during the English Civil War, and at the restoration of Charles II he was rewarded with several lucrative offices.
  • His library reflects his intellectual outlook, including works on English history, law, numismatics, chorography, alchemy, astrology, astronomy, and botany.
  • He was an early Freemason, although the extent of his involvement and commitment is unclear.
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  • Soon afterwards, at the suggestion of George Wharton, a leading astrologer with strong court connections, Ashmole was given a military post at Oxford, where he served as an ordnance officer for the King's forces.
  • There he acquired a deep interest in astronomy, astrology, and magic.
  • During the 1650s, Ashmole devoted a great deal of energy to the study of alchemy.

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Sir Isaac Newton
1643-1727

Sir Isaac Newton
  • The young Isaac disliked his stepfather and held some enmity towards his mother for marrying him, as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of 19: "Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them."
  • In the 1690s, Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible.
  • Henry More's belief in the Universe and rejection of Cartesian dualism may have influenced Newton's religious ideas.
  • A manuscript he sent to John Locke in which he disputed the existence of the Trinity was never published.
  • Later works – The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended (1728) and Observations Upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. John (1733) – were published after his death.
  • He also devoted a great deal of time to alchemy. In his own lifetime, Newton wrote more on religion than he did on natural science.
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  • On the other hand, latitudinarian and Newtonian ideas taken too far resulted in the millenarians, a religious faction dedicated to the concept of a mechanical Universe, but finding in it the same enthusiasm and mysticism that the Enlightenment had fought so hard to extinguish.
  • In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible, he estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060.
  • In predicting this he said, "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be, but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end, and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail."
  • Newton also suffered a nervous breakdown during his period of alchemical work, which is thought by some due to the psychological transformation that alchemy was originally designed to induce, though there is also speculation it may have been some form of chemical poisoning (possibly from mercury, lead, or some other substance).


Anthony Ashley Cooper
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John Nelson Darby
1800-1882

John Nelson Darby
  • Darby defended Calvinist doctrines when they came under attack from within the Church in which he once served.
  • His biographer Goddard states, "Darby indicates his approval of the doctrine of the Anglican Church as expressed in Article XVII of the Thirty-Nine Articles" on the subject of election and predestination.
  • He made at least 5 missionary journeys to North America between 1862 and 1877.
  • He worked mostly in New England, Ontario, and the Great Lakes Region, but took one extended journey from Toronto to Sydney by way of San Francisco, Hawaii, and New Zealand.
  • He was also a Bible Commentator. He declined however to contribute to the compilation of the Revised Version of the King James Bible.
  • Darby is noted in the theological world as the father of "dispensationalism," later made popular in the United States by Cyrus Scofield's Scofield Reference Bible.
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  • Charles Henry Mackintosh, 1820-1896, with his popular style spread Darby's teachings to humbler elements in society and may be regarded as the journalist of the Brethren Movement. CHM popularised Darby more than any other Brethren author.
  • Darby is sometimes credited with originating, the "secret rapture" theory wherein Christ will suddenly remove His bride, the Church, from this world before the judgments of the tribulation.
  • Dispensationalist beliefs about the fate of the Jews and the re-establishment of the Kingdom of Israel put dispensationalists at the forefront of Christian Zionism, because "God is able to graft them in again," and they believe that in His grace he will do so according to their understanding of Old Testament prophecy.
  • They believe that, while the ways of God may change, His purposes to bless Israel will never be forgotten, just as He has shown unmerited favour to the Church, He will do so to a remnant of Israel to fulfill all the promises made to the genetic seed of Abraham.

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Dwight L. Moody
1837-1899

Dwight L. Moody
  • It was while on a trip to England in Spring of 1872 that he became well known as an evangelist.
  • Some have claimed he was the greatest evangelist of the 19th century.
  • When he returned to the United States, crowds of 12,000 to 20,000 were just as common as in England.
  • His evangelistic meetings were held from Boston to New York, throughout New England and as far as San Francisco, and other West coast towns from Vancouver to San Diego.
  • Ten years after Moody's death, the Chicago Avenue Church was renamed The Moody Church in his honor, and the Chicago Bible Institute was likewise renamed Moody Bible Institute.

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Sir Charles Warren
1840 - 1927

Sir Charles Warren
  • In 1867, Warren went to Palestine with the Palestine Exploration Fund. He conducted the first major excavations of Jerusalem, thereby ushering in a new age of Biblical archaeology.
  • His most significant discovery was a water shaft, now known as Warren's Shaft, and a series of tunnels underneath the Temple Mount.
  • He also helped to discover the Moabite Stone.
  • In later life was Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis, the head of the London Metropolitan Police, from 1886 to 1888, during the period of the Jack the Ripper murders.
  • He was created Knight Commander of St Michael and St George (KCMG) on 24 May 1883 and was also created a third class Mejidiye by the Egyptian government.
  • In 1883, he was also made a Knight of Justice of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, and in June 1884 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS).
  • He was appointed Knight Commander of the Bath (KCB) on 7 January 1888.

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Rabbi Kook the Elder, Abraham Isaac Kook
1865-1935

Rabbi Kook the Elder, Abraham Isaac
  • Abraham Isaac Kook (1865–1935) was the first Ashkenazi chief rabbi of the British Mandate for Palestine.
  • In 1904, Kook moved to Ottoman Palestine to assume the rabbinical post in Jaffa, which also included responsibility for the new mostly secular Zionist agricultural settlements nearby.
    The outbreak of the First World War caught Kook in Europe, and he was forced to remain in London and Switzerland for the remainder of the war.
  • In 1916, he became rabbi of the Spitalfields Great Synagogue (Machzike Hadath, "upholders of the law"), an immigrant Orthodox community located in Brick Lane, Whitechapel.
  • Upon returning, he was appointed the Ashkenazi Rabbi of Jerusalem, and soon after, as first Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi of Palestine in 1921.
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  • Kook fathered three children through his two wives: two daughters and a son, Rabbi Zvi Yehuda Kook. His nephew was Hillel Kook.
  • His sympathy towards the Zionist movement can be seen as a major stepping-stone to the Religious Zionist movement gaining momentum and legitimacy after his death.
  • His son Zvi Yehuda Kook, who was also his most prominent student, took over teaching duties at Mercaz HaRav after his death, and dedicated his life to disseminating his father's philosophy.
  • Kook's writings and philosophy eventually gave birth to the Hardal Religious Zionist movement which is today led by rabbis who studied under Kook's son at Mercaz HaRav.

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Vladimir Jabotinsky
1880-1940

Vladimir Jabotinsky
  • Vladimir Yevgenyevich Zhabotinsky was a right-wing Revisionist Zionist leader, author, orator, soldier, and founder of the Jewish Self-Defense Organization in Odessa.
  • He also helped form the Jewish Legion of the British army in World War I, and was a founder and early leader of the militant Zionist underground organization, Irgun.
  • Jabotinsky established the Jewish Self-Defense Organization, a Jewish militia, to safeguard Jewish communities throughout Russia.
  • Jabotinsky became the source of great controversy in the Russian Jewish community as a result of these actions.
  • Around this time, he set himself the goal of learning modern Hebrew, and took a Hebrew name - Vladimir became Ze'ev ("wolf").
  • During the pogroms, he organized self-defense units in Jewish communities across Russia and fought for the civil rights of the Jewish population as a whole.
  • That year Jabotinsky was elected as a Russian delegate to the Sixth Zionist Congress in Basel, Switzerland.
  • After Herzl's death in 1904 he became the leader of the right-wing Zionists.
  • During World War I, he conceived of the idea of establishing a Jewish Legion to fight alongside the British against the Ottomans who then controlled Palestine.
  • After Ze'ev Jabotinsky was discharged from the British Army in September 1919, he openly trained Jews in self-defense and the use of small arms.
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  • After the 1920 Palestine riots, at the demand of the Arab leadership, the British searched the offices and apartments of the Zionist leadership, including Weizmann's and Jabotinsky's homes, for arms.
  • At Jabotinsky's house they found 3 rifles, 2 pistols, and 250 rounds of ammunition.
  • Nineteen men were arrested, including Jabotinsky. Jabotinsky was given a 15-year prison term for possession of weapons.
  • Following the public outcry against the verdict, he received amnesty and was released from Acre prison.
  • After the war, Jabotinsky was elected to the first legislative assembly in Palestine, and in 1921, he was elected to the executive council of the World Zionist Organization.
  • He quit the latter group in 1923, however, due to differences of opinion between him and its chairman, Chaim Weizmann.
  • His new party demanded that the Zionist movement recognize as its objective the establishment of a Jewish state along both banks of the Jordan River.
  • His main goal was to establish a modern Jewish state with the help and aid of the British Empire. Jabotinsky died of a heart attack in New York, on August 4, 1940, while visiting an armed Jewish self-defense camp run by Betar.
  • In the United States, his call for Jewish self defense has led to the formation of Americans for a Safe Israel and the Kahane-linked Jewish Defense Organization.
  • In Israel, there are more streets, parks and squares named after Jabotinsky than any other figure in Jewish or Israeli history.

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Rabbi Kook the Younger, Tzvi Yehuda Kook
1891-1982

Rabbi Kook the Younger, Tzvi Yehuda Kook
  • Zvi Yehuda Kook was a rabbi, leader of Religious Zionism (usually associated with the Hardal movement in Israel) and Rosh Yeshiva of the Mercaz HaRav yeshiva.
  • He was the son of Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook, and named in honor of his father's mentor, Rabbi Naftali Zvi Yehuda Berlin, also known as the Netziv.
  • His teachings are partially responsible for the modern religious settlement movement in the West Bank.
  • Many of his ideological followers in the Religious Zionist movement settled there.
  • Under the leadership of Rabbi Zvi Yehuda Kook, with its center in the yeshiva founded by his father, Jerusalem's Mercaz HaRav, thousands of religious Jews campaigned actively against territorial compromise, and established numerous settlements throughout the West Bank and also Gaza.
  • Many of these settlements were subsequently granted official recognition by Israeli governments, both right and left. After the Six Day War in 1967 he induced the Israeli government to approve the building of settlements in the West Bank and Gaza and sent his students to that mission.
  • He tried to strengthen the Chief Rabbinate, which he saw as the beginning of the future Sanhedrin.
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  • Prominent Rabbi Zvi Yehuda Kook was the leader of the settler movement, Gush Emunim.
  • Their beliefs are based heavily on the teachings of Rabbi Zvi Yehuda's father, Rabbi Abraham Kook.
  • The two rabbis taught that secular Zionists, through their conquests of the Land of Israel (Eretz Yisrael), had unwittingly brought about the beginning of the "final redemption", which would end in the coming of the Jewish messiah.
  • Gush Emunim supporters believe that building Jewish settlement on land God has allotted to the Jewish people as outlined in the Hebrew Bible, is an important step in the process of redemption.
  • This, and other aspects of his teachings, are being preached by his many students.
  • The most well known among them are rabbis Moshe Levinger, Shlomo Aviner, Zvi Tau, Avihu Schwartz, Dov Lior, Zephaniah Drori, Issar Klonsky, Haim Steiner, Yoel Bin-Nun, David Samson, Haim Drukman and Yaakov Ariel.
  • Numerous Yeshivas in Israel claim to be following his teachings.

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Rev. John Walvoord
1910-2002

Rev. John Walvoord
  • John F. Walvoord was a Christian theologian, pastor, and president of Dallas Theological Seminary from 1952 to 1986.
  • He was the author of over 30 books, focusing primarily on eschatology and theology including The Rapture Question, and was co-editor of The Bible Knowledge Commentary with Roy B. Zuck.
  • In addition to his responsibilities at the seminary, Walvoord earned a reputation as one of the most influential dispensational theologians of the twentieth century and played a prominent role in advocating a rapture of Christians from the earth prior to a time of great tribulation, followed by a literal thousand-year millennial reign of Christ, and a renewed focus of God on the nation of Israel as distinct from the church.


Charles Kahane
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Rabbi HaRav Shlomo Goren blowing the religious
shofar at the Western Wall in 1967
1917-1994

Rabbi HaRav Shlomo Goren
  • He volunteered for the Haganah in 1936, and served as a chaplain for the Jerusalem area during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, during which he tested for and qualified as an IDF paratrooper.
  • Goren was eventually promoted to the rank of Brigadier-General.
  • Following the establishment of the state of Israel, Goren was appointed Chief Rabbi of the Military Rabbinate of the IDF with the rank of Major-General, a position he held until 1968.
  • Goren was on hand during the capture of East Jerusalem on June 7, 1967, where he gave a prayer of thanksgiving broadcast live to the entire country.
  • Shortly afterwards Goren, blowing a shofar and carrying a Torah scroll, held the first Jewish prayer session at the Western Wall since 1948.
  • The event was one of the defining moments of the war, and several photographs of Goren, surrounded by soldiers in prayer, have since become famous around the world and particularly in Israel.
  • The most famous photograph shows Rabbi Goren blowing the Shofar against the background of the Western Wall.
  • On August 15, 1967, shortly after the Six-Day War, Goren led a group of fifty Jews onto the Temple Mount, where, fighting off protesting Muslim guards and Israeli police, they defiantly held a prayer service.
  • Goren continued to pray for many years in the Makhkame building overlooking the Temple Mount where he conducted yearly High Holiday services.
  • His call for the establishment of a synagogue on the Temple Mount has subsequently been reiterated by his brother- in- law the Chief Rabbi of Haifa, Shaar Yashuv Cohen.
  • The episode led the Chief Rabbis of the time to restate the accepted laws of normative Judaism that no Jews were allowed on the mount due to issues of ritual impurity.
  • The secular authorities welcomed this ruling as it preserved the status quo with the Waqf, the Islamic authority.
  • Disagreeing with his colleagues, Goren continually maintained that Jews were not only permitted, but commanded, to ascend and pray on the mount, a position also held by a minority within the Religious Zionist movement.
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  • One widely-repeated story about Goren claims that shortly after the Israeli capture of the Temple Mount, the rabbi either argued that Israel should destroy the al Aqsa Mosque and Dome of the Rock, or simply said that it would have been a "good thing" if they had been accidentally destroyed.
  • Goren did make a speech later that year to a military convention, recorded and later broadcast on Israel's army radio in which he said of the Dome of the Rock and the al-Aqsa Mosque that: ‘Certainly we should have blown it up. It is a tragedy that we did not do so.’
  • Goren repeatedly advocated or supported building a Third Temple on the Temple Mount from the 1960s onward, and was associated with various messianic projects involving the site.
  • In the summer of 1983, Goren and several other rabbis joined Rabbi Yehuda Getz, who worked for the Religious Affairs Ministry at the Western Wall, in touring a chamber underneath the mount that Getz had illegally excavated, where the two claimed to have seen the Ark of the Covenant.
  • The tunnel was shortly discovered and resulted in a massive brawl between young Jews and Arabs in the area.
  • The tunnel was quickly sealed with concrete by Israeli police.
  • He was deeply opposed to the Oslo Accords and in 1993 declared that it was Halakhically forbidden to dismantle any settlements in the Biblical land of Israel, and encouraged any soldiers ordered to do so to refuse.
  • In 1994 he announced that Halakha made it a "duty" for Jews to kill Yasser Arafat. Rabbi Goren, who was a strong supporter of alliances between Evangelical Christians and Israel, also denounced meetings between Israel and the Holy See, calling it "blasphemy beyond expression."
  • However, Goren also spoke out against Jewish terrorism.
  • In 1981 he and Rabbi Ovadia Yosef officially condemned a shooting attack on the Temple Mount by a Kahanist immigrant which resulted in the death of one Muslim bystander and the wounding of several others.
  • In a joint statement released by the Chief Rabbis, they declared that "We and the entire Jewish people attack and deplore the criminal act of murder in every possible way. Through this abominable act [Alan] Goodman has removed himself from the Jewish people...".


Born 1922

Rabbi Abraham Hecht
  • Abraham Hecht was born in Brooklyn, New York; is an American Orthodox rabbi affiliated with the Chabad-Lubavitch movement, and is president of the Rabbinical Alliance of America.
  • Some regard Rabbi Abraham B. Hecht as one of America's most articulate Orthodox rabbinic leaders. Known as a "rabbi's rabbi" and a scholar of Torah.
  • He led protests against the film Monty Python's Life of Brian, claiming that it "was produced in hell".
  • Hecht was featured in a June 23, 1995 article by Larry Yudelson, for his assertion at a rabbinical gathering, that Jewish Law (Halakha) could permit the assassination of Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Foreign Minister Shimon Peres for their proposal at Oslo to withdraw from parts of the Israeli-occupied Palestinian territories.
  • On June 19, 1995, Hecht had told the gathered members of the International Rabbinical Coalition for Israel "that by handing over Israeli land and property, Israeli leaders are betraying Jews to non-Jews" and that, according to Maimonides, "such people should be killed before they can perform the deed."
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  • An October 1995 article in New York Magazine referred to Hecht as the rabbi who "sentenced" Yitzak Rabin to death, and quoted Hecht as praising Israeli mass murderer and American expatriate Baruch Goldstein, as "a great man, a holy man."
  • At the time, Hecht was a senior rabbi of Congregation Shaare Zion in Brooklyn, the largest Sephardic Jewish congregation in the U.S. Rabin was assassinated in Israel on November 4, 1995 by Yigal Amir for signing the Oslo Accords.
  • After the assassination, Hecht was placed on a six-month paid leave by his synagogue and was, along with six other American Jews, barred for "security" reasons by the Israeli government from entering the country.
  • According to Samuel G. Freedman, author of Jew vs. Jew: The Struggle for the Soul of American Jewry, Hecht also influenced Harry Shapiro, who planted a pipe bomb at a Jacksonville synagogue in 1997 in order to prevent Peres from speaking in support of the Oslo Accords.


Stanley Goldfoot
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1932 - 1990

Rabbi Meir Kahane
  • Rabbi Meir David Kahane was an American-Israeli Orthodox rabbi and a member of the Israeli Knesset.
  • Kahane was known in the United States and Israel for his strong political, nationalist views, exemplified in his promotion of a Greater Israel based on Jewish law.
  • He founded two controversial movements: the Jewish Defense League (JDL) in the USA and Kach, an Israeli political party. In 1984, Kach gained one seat in the Knesset and Rabbi Meir Kahane became a member.
  • In 1986, Kach was declared a racist party by the Israeli government and banned from the Knesset, and, in 1994, following the Cave of the Patriarchs massacre - the massacre of Arabs in Al-Haram Al-Ibraheme mosque by Baruch Goldstein - the movement was outlawed completely.
  • Kahane was assassinated in Manhattan in 1990, after concluding a speech calling on American Jews to emigrate to Israel, in a New York City hotel.
  • As a teenager, he became an ardent admirer of Ze'ev Jabotinsky, who was a frequent guest in his parents' home, and joined the Betar (Brit Trumpeldor) youth wing of Revisionist Zionism.
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  • In the early 1970s, Bob Dylan was accused of being a supporter of Rabbi Meir Kahane’s Jewish Defense League.
  • In a Time Magazine interview, Dylan said about Kahane, "He's a really sincere guy. He's really put it all together."
  • According to Kahane, Dylan did attend several meetings of the Jewish Defense League in order to find out "what we're all about" and started to have talks with the rabbi.
  • Kahane refused to take the standard oath of office for the Knesset and insisted on adding a Biblical verse from Psalms, to indicate that when the national laws and Torah conflict, Torah (Biblical) law should have supremacy over the laws of the Knesset.
  • His speeches, boycotted by Knesset members, were made to an empty parliament, except for the duty chairman and the transcriptionist.
  • Kahane's legislative proposals and motions of no-confidence against the government were ignored or rejected by fellow Knesset members.

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Rabbi Abraham Shemtov
1937 -

Rabbi Abraham Shemtov
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Rabbi Menachem Fruman
1945-

Rabbi Menachem Fruman
  • Rabbi Menachem Fruman is an Ashkenazi Orthodox rabbi and a peacemaker and negotiator with close ties to Palestinian religious leaders from the PLO and Hamas.
  • A founding member of the settler movement Gush Emunim, he serves today as the chief rabbi of Tekoa in the West Bank.
  • Together with a Palestinian journalist close to Hamas, Rabbi Froman has drafted a ceasefire agreement between Israel and the Hamas government in the Gaza Strip, known as the Froman-Amayreh Agreement.
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  • The agreement was endorsed by Hamas government but has yet to receive any official response from the Israeli government.
  • Froman conducted meetings with controversial Palestinian leaders, including with the late PLO Chairman and President of Palestinian National Authority Yasser Arafat, and the late Hamas leader Sheikh Ahmad Yassin.

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Leen Ritmeyer

Leen Ritmeyer
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Rabbi David Samson
1956-

Rabbi David Samson
  • Rabbi Samson has written five books most of which are on the teachings of Rabbi Avraham Yitzchak Kook and Rabbi Zvi Yehuda Kook.
  • After moving to Israel, he studied under the tutelage of Rabbi Zvi Yehuda Kook for twelve years.

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Lambert Dolphin
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Chuck Missler

Chuck Missler
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Douglass Krieger
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Rabbi Israel Ariel

Rabbi Israel Ariel
  • Rabbi Yisrael Ariel was the chief rabbi of the evacuated Israeli settlement of Yamit in the Sinai desert during the years when the Sinai was controlled by Israel.
  • His brother, Rabbi Yaakov Ariel, served as the rosh yeshiva in the yeshiva in Yamit and is currently the chief rabbi of the city of Ramat Gan. Rabbi Ariel is the founder of the Temple Institute (Machon HaMikdash).
  • As a young man, he served in the paratroop unit that liberated the Western Wall (kotel) in the Six-Day War.
  • For the 1981 Knesset elections, Rabbi Ariel ran as number 2 on the Kach list with Rabbi Meir Kahane as the leader and number 1.
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  • Kach was a religious and nationalist Jewish group originally led by Rabbi Kahane who was assassinated by Egyptian terrorist El Sayyid Nosair and hopes to transfer Arabs from the land of Israel. Rabbi Kahane had a seat in the Knesset on the Kach list from 1984-1988 before it was banned.
  • As of 2006, aside from being the head of the Temple Institute, he is also involved in an attempt to revive the Sanhedrin.
  • Rabbi Ariel maintains that the Pesach sacrificial service on the Temple Mount should be resumed as soon as possible, and that there are no reasons not to do so and that the Temple should be built ASAP.
  • In December 2006, he was briefly arrested and interrogated by Israeli police after confronting General Elazar Stern, before being released.


Dr. David E. Jacobsen
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Terry Riesenhoover
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