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Intel - History
Pakistan's Nuclear Program

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Abdul Qadeer Khan Motivated by trying to protect Pakistan from India
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Known as Agent Karim, to the Pakistani Secret Service
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Wife is Dutch
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Family were Muslim refugees from India
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India has recently defeated Pakistan in two wars (1965 & 1971)
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Prime Minister Zulfikar Bhutto Decides to Pursue Nuclear Program - January 1972
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AQ Khan Goes to Work for URENCO in Amsterdam - 1972
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Project 706 was the effort to find a location for nuclear research facility
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Kahuta in the foothills of the Himalayas, was the chosen location
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Pakistan Contracted France To Build a Plutonium Plant - 1974
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  • Named the Kundian Nuclear Complex
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Khan had Western construction companies build the plant
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German businessman Gothab Lech (sp?) was a partner in the network
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Much nuclear material is dual-use, good for peaceful or military needs
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False end-users, multiple points of destination for shipping to Pakistan
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Centrifuge designs came from Netherlands, at URENCO, then got suppliers list in Europe, to build them
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Netherlands Charged Khan with Nuclear Espionage
1983
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China Provided Pakistan with Proven Warhead Design - 1983
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China Provided Pakistan with Sufficient Uranium for Two Bombs
1983
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Dutch sentenced to four years in jail, but due to legal screw up by the Dutch, he was acquitted on all charges
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Western Intelligence Realizes Kahuta's True Purpose
1985
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Since 1971, Pakistan was pursuing nuclear weapons
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Khan started meeting with the Chinese
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CIA launched covert operations espionage, shadowing Khan on one of his frequent foreign trips, revealing Khan obtained the design for a nuclear warhead. This was a design the Chinese created that could deliver a nuclear warhead just about anywhere in the world
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This was a major breakthrough for CIA covert operations, but the Afghan war with the Soviets changed all that. Now the US relied on Pakistan as a crucial ally, Consequently, the US looked the other way, while the war raged on
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Khan then brought operations into the United States
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CIA Barlow oversaw a sting operation on Archie Pervez, for 350 grade ultra strong steel, which has very limited commercial need. CIA wanted to know who Pervez was buying for, and where it was being sent....which turned out to be the Kahuta plant. His arrest created a firestorm in Washington, because of the US war in Afghanistan. CIA warned, in 1987, to stop pursuing the Khan networks
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Also in 1987, Khan goes to the Middle East, specifically Dubai. B.S.A Tahir of the SMB Group, was employed as a front man for Khan. He is from Sri Lanka. Described as Khan's "surrogate" son, and rose to prominence in the network.
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Pakistan Conducted First Nuclear Tests - May 28, 1988 at Ras Koh Hills in Chagai
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Heinz Mabus had already sold nuclear material to the Iraq nuclear program. He was from Germany. This was in Dubai. Intelligence completely lost any connection to the relevance that Khan was now actively trying to sell nuclear secrets.
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A chicken farm in the Iraqi desert, contained a treasure trove of atomic documents, which was reviewed by Trevor Edwards, of the IAEA. In 1990, Khan made an offer to the Iraqis, via a company he owns in Dubai, but Saddam turned him down, thinking it was a CIA setup job
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Still, the US did nothing to prevent Khan from continuing the network and selling nuclear technology
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Throughout 1990s, Khan Network became very rich, a millionaire, collecting expensive cars, became very greedy, and wanting money....also fueled by resentment towards the west
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May 1998, Pakistan exploded it's first nuclear bomb, one month following India's successful test. They called it "not the Pakistani bomb but the Islamic bomb"
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Pakistan's Kahuta Labs began openly advertising nuclear technology
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Khan starts traveling all over the world, including North Korea
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North Korea provided missiles for Atomic Missiles, and Pakistan provided centrifuges.
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Intelligence on Khan made top priority, in late 1990s....CIA and MI-6 start joint intelligence sharing on Khan networks
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Khan starts meeting with Libya, and the west was aware of this
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Washington wanted to watch this process, to better learn the network
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Pursuit of Khan thrown off course by September 11, since Khan was a national hero, yet the US needed Pakistan' help against Osama bin Laden
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Khan allegedly warned by Musharaf to be careful
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Iranian exile group revealed to world the Iranian nuclear facilities, inspected by the UN six months later, in Natanz
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Nuclear inspectors recognized the centrifuges as very similar to the design from URENCO, in the Netherlands, when Khan worked there, and stole the designs
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New ventilation system recently installed, and new floor had been put in very recently
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Chemical analysis revealed the centrifuges could not have been built in Iran, so Iran was clearly lying. Iran admitted working with Khan 16 years ago, in 1987, in Dubai, with Khan, Tahir, his uncle Muhammad Faruq, and Heinz Mabus. Iran paid $3 million for the centrifuge technology, and later paid millions more. US intelligence was looking in the wrong places
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In 2003, Libya agreed to give up nuclear program, and rejoin the international community, away from isolationism.
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Malaysian contracting company Skony (sp?) got contract, and project overseen by Ers Tinner (Khan associate). MI-6/CIA activated an agent at the heart of the contract, and found the materials were destined for Libya, via Dubai, and diverted the ship to Italy, somehow
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In Italy, the intelligence team examined the cargo, and found centrifuge parts for Libya, some from Malaysia, and some from Kahuta
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Libyan diplomats were summoned to London, and met with Robert Joseph of US State Dept
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Weapons inspectors from UN arrived in Libya, and learned that Khan started meeting with Libya in mid-1990s, in Dubai, Istanbul, and Casablanca. Khan said it would be $100 million
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Secret site in outskirts of Tripoli is where the vacuum pumps and motors, from Kahuta and Malaysia, were located. A bag from Khan's tailor, featuring the Chinese missile design, was found there too.
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Tahir captured in Malaysia and confessed
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Pakistan forced Khan to confess on television
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Khan sentenced to house arrest
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Pakistan admitted to helping Libya, Iran, and North Korea, but denied it helped North Korea's nuclear tests. It says that Khan acted alone.
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Natanz capable of housing up to 50,000 gas centrifuges
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Late 2005, IAEA inspectors some of the Khan documents in Iran speak of how to cast uranium metal into a sphere which is only really relevant to need for a bomb, and were also very similar to the tailor bag contents from Tripoli, which then suggests the Iranians were involved in a weapons program
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Khan has spread Weapons of Mass Destruction to the most dangerous regimes in the world, unlike Osama bin Laden, who has been restricted to conventional terrorist attacks, making Khan more dangerous than Osama bin Laden, as a result
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